Hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation are on the rise. Attacks such as the one in Orlando on June 12 2016, against the LGBTQ community, which resulted in the death of 49 people (US), and the one in Toronto on April 23 2018 against women are both examples of this phenomenon. Hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation, which are the most violent hate crimes, do not solely impact the individual victim; their consequences are profound for the entire targeted group or community. Furthermore, hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation represent a direct affront to the democratic principles of tolerance and respect for the identity and opinions of others. As such, this study aims to understand this phenomenon, its manifestations and roots. It also identifies promising practices and strategies used by states and cities to prevent hate crimes. The Study is due to be published in the spring of 2019.
Crime phenomena must be observed and analyzed in detail in order to implement adequate public policies. For security policies and, more specifically, crime prevention strategies to be effective, it is essential that they are based on a variety of data that are fair, of high quality, rich and up-to-date.
To this end, crime observatories are tools that can be used to observe and analyze crime phenomena in order to inform decision-making when it comes to intervention and prevention. Yet, currently, there is no existing standard allowing to measure the quality of the observatories. Because of this gap, it is difficult to assess whether observatories can produce reliable data and analysis and constitute a relevant resource for public safety and prevention policies.
The purpose of developing an international framework for the evaluation of crime observatories is to create a framework validated by major international organizations and NGOs working in the field of crime phenomena observation and analysis, accepted by the professional community and providing a set of rules and principles essential for the constitution and functioning of observatories. This repository will be both a tool facilitating the creation of observatories, but also a matrix to evaluate the quality, relevance, and reliability of the data and the results produced by a given observatory.
The repository will classify observatories at one of three stages corresponding to their level of development: initial, intermediate or advanced.
This graduated approach has the advantage of giving room for development so the observatories can be enhanced. In other words, the repository will make it possible to evaluate observatories according to their level of development and to provide the necessary recommendations so that they can reach the next level of development, thereby improving the quality of data and analysis.
The project is conducted jointly by the International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC), Canada, the National Institute of Higher Studies of Security and Justice (INHESJ-ONDRP), France and the Organization of American States (OAS), USA. These are organizations that have extensive experience and recognized expertise in crime observation.
In June, ICPC was mandated to carry out a local safety audit in the borough of Ahunstic-Cartierville. The aim of this audit is to provide a global understanding of crime-related issues in order to better understand the risk factors leading to delinquency and insecurity, and identify existing protective factors to get a better picture of the phenomenon of crime within the community. The audit will help come up with a clear picture of the scale and nature of crime in the borough, stimulate participation from local actors and draw up recommendations and promising avenues for intervention to pave the way for coordinated action.
In May, ICPC was mandated by the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough to conduct exploratory walks in the Milton Park Neighborhood. This process consisting of collecting data in the field was requested in the framework of the opening of the Open Doors organization in the neighborhood. These walks will provide accurate information on specific characteristics of both the physical and built environments, social attendance and space occupancy, as well as observable incivilities. Thanks to this information, recommendations will be made and this will allow to outline good practices in terms of urban planning promoting social diversity and coexistence.
In 2016 and 2017, the ICPC received two grants from the Motorola Solutions Foundation. The grant received in 2016 was used to fund Phase I of the ICPC’s project, which focused on developing a handbook for coordination evaluation using social network analysis: a tool for local actors. This handbook provides an innovative tool for local partners to help them assess their coordination systems autonomously. The social network analysis (SNA) methodology combines an evaluation model with an analysis of actors and social networks, offering an assessment of local partners and coordination systems, as well as a continuous follow-up and evaluation from the design to the implementation of local crime prevention strategies, programmes and policies.
The second grant from the Motorola Solutions Foundation in the amount of US $ 40,000 in 2017 allowed the ICPC to start Phase II of the project which aims to implement the handbook in three pilot cities: Bogotá (Colombia), Montreal (Canada), and possibly Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). Through these pilot projects, the ICPC hopes to provide training to local partners in the evaluation process of methodological participation using the handbook.
This project is intended to help involved actors acquire knowledge and skills to be able to assess the services provided regarding the sexual exploitation of minors in Laval. To this end, the ICPC has developed several methodological guides. A first guide focuses on consultative techniques and includes instructions and information on preparation, progress and analysis of focus groups. The second guide focuses on coordination assessment among different actors and services and addresses (1) the analysis of actors, allowing the development of an actors and services index in sexual exploitation, among other things, and updating some characteristics, (2) the analysis of coordination, allowing the creation of actions and relations maps between actors in order to assess relationships between actors and their concrete actions and, (3) the analysis of the continuum of services, allowing to identify their gaps and strengths.
Subsequently, through training workshops, field actors are trained in the use of these guides so as to equip and enable them to carry out their own evaluation of the service corridor when it comes to sexual exploitation.
Finally, the ICPC will provide them with support and follow-up in the implementation of the methodological guides, analysis and assessment report writing to answer their questions and guide them in their actions.