Hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation are on the rise. Attacks such as the one in Orlando on June 12 2016, against the LGBTQ community, which resulted in the death of 49 people (US), and the one in Toronto on April 23 2018 against women are both examples of this phenomenon. Hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation, which are the most violent hate crimes, do not solely impact the individual victim; their consequences are profound for the entire targeted group or community. Furthermore, hate crimes based on gender identity and sexual orientation represent a direct affront to the democratic principles of tolerance and respect for the identity and opinions of others. As such, this study aims to understand this phenomenon, its manifestations and roots. It also identifies promising practices and strategies used by states and cities to prevent hate crimes. The Study is due to be published in the spring of 2019.